MODULE II:
THE URBAN POOR AND THEIR SITUATION

Module Objective:

By the end of the module, participants shall be able to:

  1. define the characteristics and needs of human beings;
  2. determine how resources in Philippine society or in the communities are distributed and how this distribution affects the life of the urban poor;
  3. analyze the situation and problems in urban poor communities and how these situation affect women in particular;
  4. identify their rights as individuals and their housing rights; and,
  5. analyze laws that affect the situation of urban poor communities.

Module Description:

Session 1: How Should Human Beings Live?
Activity 1: What Characterize a Human Being? It discusses the concept of a human being, her/his rights as a human being through drawings and group work.
Activity 2: Who Are the Urban Poor? A game is used to discuss about the urban poor — who they are and their charateristics.
Activity 3: Building the House The method of simulation is used to discuss how the unequal distribution of wealth in Philippine society have given rise to the existence of urban poor communities in most parts of urban areas.
Session 2: Development Problems in Urban Poor Communities
Activity 1: What's in a Name? Derogatory words are often associated to people in urban poor communities. A game is used to discuss the myths and realities of the urban poor issue. An alternative activity is presented using photolanguage and free verse writing for participants who are not familiar to urban poor situation.
Activity 2: Tao...Bahay... Bagyo It tackles the problems and issues confronting urban poor families and how these problems/issues particularly affect women.
Activity 3: The Web Visual diagramming is used to show the interrelationships of problems and the causes and consequences of these problems are analyzed in a simple manner.
Session 3: Laws That Affect Urban Poor Communities
Activity 1: Understanding Our Rights. Through the use of skits, situations that call for assertive responses will be discussed and people will be given a chance to try out ways to stand up for one's right.
Activity 2: Claiming Our Rights. A short input from a resource person will be provided to give adequate information on the rights of individuals in relation to housing as stated in the constitution and international instruments.
Activity 3: Housing Laws and the Urban Poor. Group discussion is used to share experiences on how existing laws affect their lives and analyze the impact of these laws from their own perspectives.

Module Activities:

Session 1: How Should Human Beings Live?

Activity 1: "What Characterize a Human Being?"

Materials Needed:
kraft paper
scissors
art papers
pentel pens
paste
crayons/colored pencils
masking tape

A. Process

  1. Divide participants into groups. Ask each group to discuss the following:
  2. After they have discussed, ask each group to draw human beings at the center ofa kraft paper, indicate their qualities that characterize them as human beings and surround them the elements that they must have to fully experience the qualities as human beings.
  3. Let each group explains their drawing in a plenary.

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. After the presentation of all groups, process the activity. Ask:
  2. Deepen discussion on the contents of the drawings. Ask the following questions:

C. Input:

  1. Highlight key points in the discussion and provide a short input based on key points surfaced in the discussion.
  2. Ask for further questions or clarifications regarding the input provided.

D. Synthesis

  1. Based on the discussion, ask participants to express their insights/learnings on the activity.
  2. Highlight similar as well as distinct points raised by the participants. As a synthesis, provide a general statement based on key points discussed.

Activity 2: "Who Are The Urban Poor?"

Materials Needed:
several bundles of barbeque sticks

A. Process

  1. Ask participants to form a circle. At the center, place the bundles of barbeque sticks.
  2. Explain that the goal of the activity is to determine the features of urban poor people.
  3. Instruct participants that you are going to say something, if it is true for them, they will get one barbeque stick.
  4. Start the game by asking the following:
  5. Let each participants count the number of sticks they have.

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. What reactions/insights can you draw out from the activity?
  2. What did you observe?
  3. Why are people occupying different clusters?
  4. How do you feel about these differences in positions?
  5. How do you define who the urban poor are?

C. Input/Synthesis

  1. Highlight the reasons for the differences in status of people in a society as given by the participants.
  2. Provide a definition of who the urban poor people are based from the discussion.

Activity 3: "Building A House" (Access to Resources)

Material Needed:
art paper
cartolina
crayons/colored pens
paste

A. Process

  1. Ask participants to list 20 important materials used in building a house. List them on the board.
  2. Divide participants into 5 groups. From the above list, ask each group to make 4 important materials (drawings) used in constructing a house. Before the groups start, each group enumerates the 4 materials they are going to work on to avoid duplication of materials.
  3. After the groups are through, collect all the materials and place them on a table.
  4. In 5 strips of paper, write the number of the groups and let the groups choose their numbers. The group with the number 1 will be the first; 2 will be the next and so on.
  5. Remind the groups that their objective is to construct a beautiful house using materials on the table. Ask members of Group # 1 to come to the table and pick 10 materials they think are important in constructing a house. Give 5 minutes for the group to choose.
  6. Ask members of Group 2 to choose 6 materials. Give them 5 minutes to choose.
  7. Ask members of Group 3, 4 and 5 to get any from the 4 remaining materials. Give them 1 minute to get their materials.
  8. Ask the groups to start constructing their house.

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. How do you feel about the activity?
  2. For the groups that have enough materials, did you encounter problems in constructing your house?
  3. For groups that do not have adequate materials, did you encounter problems in building your house? what did you do to solve these?
  4. How do you relate the activity to the situation of urban poor?

C. Input

  1. Explain the game:

D. Synthesis

  1. Based on the discussion, ask participants to express their insights/learnings on the activity.
  2. Highlight similar as well as distinct points raised by the participants. As a synthesis, provide a general statement based on key points discussed.

Session 2: Development Problems in an Urban Poor Community

Activity 1: "What's in a Name?" (Urban Poor: Myths and Realities)

Materials Needed:
strips of card board with written statements that describe the urban poor or name given to urban poor by other members of society

A. Process

  1. Divide one side of the room into 2 parts on the left side, post the word MYTHS and on the right side, post the word, REALITIES.
  2. Instruct the participants to walk quickly to that side (Myths or Realities) that they think best respond to your statement.
  3. Read a statement. Ask participants to stand either underneath Myths or Realities that they think best respond to the statement.
  4. Ask the individuals in each group to explain to the other group their reasons why the statement is a myth or a reality. If after the discussion, the whole group is convinced that it is:

Answers on the board will look like this:

ANG SABINILA KAMI AY..| NGUNIT AND HINDI NILA

| ALAM AY...

----------------------+-----------------------------

|

|

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. What is your reaction to the activity?
  2. What are the names or words used to denote urban poor people? What did you noticed about the word used?

C. Input:

  1. Explain:
  2. Ask further questions or clarification that will deepen discussion.

D. Synthesis

  1. Based on the discussion, ask participants to express their insights/learnings on the activity.
  2. Highlight similar as well as distinct points raised by the participants. As a synthesis, provide a general statement based on key points discussed.

Activity 2: "Tao... Bahay... Lupa..." (Urban Poor Problems)

Materials Needed:
kraft paper
masking tape
pentel pen

A. Process

  1. Ask participants to form a circle. Ask them to group in 3's. The participant at the center will be the "tao" and those on both sides, center to form a "bahay."
  2. Instruct participants that when you say "tao," the participants in the center will have to transfer to a different "bahay." When you say "bahay" then the participants on both sides, with hands together, will transfer to a different tao. When you say "lupa" the participants will have to change their status and positions altogether.
  3. After 1 trial, add on another instruction: the person caught at the center without a bahay will have to state a PROBLEM presently faced by urban poor communities. Remind participants that the problem mentioned previously by other participants cannot be repeated by suceeding participants.
  4. As participants state the problems, write them on the board or kraft paper.

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. Review the problems enumerated by the participants. Ask them if there are still problem that are missed and add them to the list.
  2. Draw a circle on the board, at the center draw a symbol of women. Ask participants to cite problems that specifically affect women. List these in the circle.
  3. Draw an outer circle. Based on the problems of urban poor communities discussed in the preceeding activity, ask participants to write them in the outer circle.
  4. Ask their observations on the situation or problems faced by women in comparison to men in urban poor communities.
  5. Based from their observations, synthesize key differences of situation between men and women.

ALTERNATIVE ACTIVITY:

This alternative activity will be done if the participants are not familiar with urban poor conditions or are not urban poor people themselves.

Alternative Activity: "Relay Game"

Materials Needed:
photos depicting urban poor conditions
manila paper
pentel pens
masking tape

A. Process

  1. In one corner of the room, mount several pictures/photos depicting condition in urban poor communities. Let participants go over the pictures/photos for 5 minutes.
  2. Ask participants to fall into 2 lines or columns. The participants on the left side become members of Group 1 and those on the right become Group 2.
  3. Divide the board into 2 parts (or 2 separate pieces of kraft paper). Ask the groups to face the board.
  4. Present the rules of the game:
    1. the first member will write one problem on the board/kraft paper
    2. after s/he finished, s/he pass on the pentel pen to the next person before her/him and s/he will stand at the end of the line.
    3. the next person will write another problem and so on, until all members have a chance to write.
    4. problems should appear only once.
  5. Ask the groups to start writing when they hear you call "Start". The group who have written the most numberof problems wins.

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. Review the answers. Ask them to add those problems that were missed out.
  2. Discuss problems specifically faced by women in urban poor communities and let participants see that aside from the problems faced by urban poor families as a whole, women have specific problems that are aggravated by the poverty situation.

C. Input/Synthesis

  1. As additional input, discuss the general situation of urban poor communities.
  2. Wrap up the whole activity by asking the participants to do a free verse writing activity (poem writing).
  3. Explain the principles of free verse writing:
  4. Ask them to make an individual poem (in free verse) within 5 minutes starting with the trigger word — "It was that day....", and ending with the trigger word — "today".
  5. Read these poems in class.

Activity 3: "The Web" (Analysis of Problems of the Urban Poor)

Materials Needed:
kraft paper
pentel pens (various colors)
masking tape

A. Process

  1. Explain the mechaniques of the web chart: It is a simple way of analyzing the causes and consequences of a problem or issue.
  2. Ask a participant to write on the board one major problem affecting individuals in urban poor communities. Ask the participant to write the problem in the middle of the board and encircle it.
  3. Let them reflect on the causes of the problem (it may have one or more causes). Ask another participant to write one cause of the problem, encircle it and link it to the major problem.
  4. Then, ask other participants, one at a time, to identify other causes, encircle them and connect them in the same way. Keep on enlarging the levels of the web of problems and their causes until all problems and causes are fully expanded.

In case the same answer emerges for two or more causes, connect them by means of a dotted line.

5. When a whole chain of problems has been created in this way, let participants reflect on how and where the chain of negative consequences or effects can be broken.

(Note: double-lined circles are solutions single-lined circles are problems)

B. Processing/Deepening

1. Ask:

> What insights can you draw out from the situation of people in urban poor communities?

C. Input/Synthesis

  1. Ask the following questions:
  2. Provide a short input:

Session 3: Laws that Affect Urban Poor Communities

Activity 1: "Understanding our Rights"

Materials:
None

A. Process

  1. Start by explaining that as people considered urban poor, we all have been in a situation where someone or others have been unfair to us. Ask some examples of situations from the participants. List them on the left side of the board.
  2. Go back to the situations listed on the board. Ask them how did they react to each particular situation. List behavior on the right side of the board.
  3. Explain that in such situations, we can react in three ways:
  4. Divide participants into 3 groups, ask each group to prepare a skit depicting a situation relating to a particular housing issue in an urban poor community.
  5. Ask each group to choose what they think is the best way to behave in each situation. Encourage other groups to help a group if they have difficulty in deciding which response would be best.

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. Generate reactions from the activity. Then ask further questions:
  2. Deepen discussion by asking the following questions:

C. Synthesis

  1. Highlight key points raised during the discussion.
  2. Emphasize that oftentimes, assertive behavior is most helpful in situations where we feel someone or others has/have been unfair to us (standing up for one's right).
  3. Summarize ideas or ways to express their rights in their daily lives as suggested by the participants.

Activity 2: "Claiming Our Rights"

Materials Needed:
written information of housing laws and rights

A. Process

  1. Explain that this activity deals with their rights to housing. Ask participants to enumerate what they think are their rights related to housing. List them on the board.
  2. Ask a resource person or someone knowledgeable about these rights to discuss them. Provide some time for questions and clarifications.
  3. In a plenary, ask them to compare what they perceive as their housing rights with that presented by the resource person.

B. Processing/Deepening

  1. Ask their reactions to the discussion.
  2. Ask further question on what to do when one's rights are not recognized/respected. Direct the following questions to both the participants and the resource person.

C. Synthesis

  1. Present a summary of a person's rights to housing as stated in international instruments and our constitution.
  2. To wrap up the activity, synthesize key points raised during the discussion.

Activity 3: "Housing Laws and the Urban Poor"

Materials Needed:
cards containing information about housing laws
diagram of community problems (see the "Web" in the previous activity)

A. Process

  1. Divide participants into groups. Ask them to discuss how existing housing laws can affect their lives as men and as women.
  2. Distribute cards equally to the groups. Ask the groups to discuss and asssess the impact of these laws on their lives -- how these laws affect their lives from their own perspective.Encourage them to share experiences on how these laws are operationalized in their particular communities and how it affect men and women.
  3. Ask each group to report which of these laws they think are beneficial or discriminatory to urban poor people and possible recommendation on how these laws be improved or other measures that the government should do to address urban poor problems. Provide time for discussion and clarification.

B. Processing/Synthesis

  1. Draw out participants' observations on the sharing of experiences on the impact of these laws to them.
  2. Differentiate which laws are beneficial and which are discriminatory to urban poor.
  3. Summarize recommendations suggested by the groups.